This is an extreme close up shot. This is used for effect, for example in Psycho when the camera zooms in on the eyeball.
This is a high angle shot. This type of shot is used when you are trying to make something look powerful or dominant. For example, someone lying helpless on the floor as the look up at someone powerful striding towards them.
This is an over the shoulder shot. This shot is used to make it seem like you are walking with that person, not just watching it happen.
This is a long shot. This is for making things look far away and distant. The shot creates a sense of distance.
This is a tilt shot. This is used when you are trying to create a sense of dizzyness, illness, fatigue etc. For example, if someone is tired and falling asleep, you would use this kind of shot as they fall asleep.
This is a close up shot. This is for focusing on a particular character or object and showing them in detail.For example, if a dramatic event occurs, you would use this kind of shot to focus on the main character and their reaction.
This is a medium close up shot. This is for focusing on one thing while they are talking or doing something. For example, in a conversation this would be used commonly to switch from character to character as they talk.
This is a panning shot. This is used to focus on one thing, before zooming out to reveal their surroundings or the location they're in. This is used commonly for effect. For example, when a hiker reaches the top of a mountain, the camera can zoom out to reveal the amazing view.
This is a tracking shot. This is used when following one particular thing (e.g. a person). For example, in a cycling race, this would be used to track each cyclist.
This is a point of view shot. This is used when trying to make it look like you are viewing it through the eyes of the character.